[expand title=”What is desalination?” tag=”h3″]
Desalination is the process of removing salt and other minerals from water. The process is most commonly used to make seawater or brackish water drinkable, but it can also be applied to obtain ultrapure water that far exceeds drinking water requirements, for certain industrial processes. The two primary approaches to desalination are thermal desalination, in which raw water is boiled and the vapor condensed as pure water (distillate), and membrane desalination, in which a semi-permeable membrane is used to filter out the dissolved solids. The dominant membrane desalination technique is reverse osmosis (RO), although nanofiltration (NF), electrodialysis (ED, EDR) and electrodeionisation (EDI) each have niche applications.
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[expand title=”What is reverse osmosis?” tag=”h3″]
RO is the main method of seawater (and brackish water) desalination used in all markets outside the Gulf where there is no cheap source of steam. Outside the Gulf Coast region, RO is the first choice method of desalination, except where there are special considerations (e.g., power station co-location or specific industrial requirements). RO technology is now mature, and efficiency gains are becoming increasingly incremental. The main areas of advancement are in energy efficiency of the process, and fouling and scaling issues. Figure 1 shows the growth over the years of RO applied in various water sources.
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[expand title=”Fouling” tag=”h3″]
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[expand title=”Post-treatment” tag=”h3″]
[expand title=”Environmental concerns” tag=”h3″]
[expand title=”Energy consumption and costs” tag=”h3″]
Desalination is the process of removing salt and other minerals from water.